Angiosperms and Gymnosperms are divided on the basis of kind of seeds they bear. Angiosperms are those whose seeds are covered inside the fruit. Gymnosperms seeds are called as naked seeds as they are exposed one. In gymnosperms seeds are developed on the surface of specialized leaves and they are cone bearing in nature.While the angiosperms plants contain ovary within the flowers and fruits.
Angiosperms are found almost in all kind of habitat, right from the forest, grasslands to the sea margins, and deserts. Gymnosperms seeds develop either on the scale or cones (leaf-like appendages). The largest group of living gymnosperms are conifers and smallest is ginkgo, it is a single living plant species found in China.
Plantae kingdom is also among the list of five kingdom classification organized by R.H Whittaker. It includes all kinds of plants present on earth. They are the multicellular, eukaryotic organisms having an autotrophic mode of nutrition.
On the support of few factors, this kingdom is further classified into five subgroups like Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms. Here we will be discussing the two main subgroups and their differences which are angiosperms and gymnosperms.
Content: Angiosperms Vs Gymnosperms
|Basis for Comparison||Angiosperms||Gymnosperms|
|It consist||Flowering ornamental, fruits, and all vegetables and hence called as flowering plants.||Gymnosperms contain all kind of pine, fir, pine, conifers, cedar, juniper, cypress and hence called as non-flowering plants.|
|Sporophylls||Accumulate to produce flowers.||Accumulate to form cones.|
|Bisexual/ Unisexual||Generally bisexual and rarely unisexual.||Cones are generally unisexual and rarely bisexual.|
|Structural differences||Sepals and petals present.||Sepals and petals are not been possessed.|
|Sporophyll bears short thalamus.||Sporophyll bears elongated central axis.|
|Megasporophyll is structured to form a carpel.||It is the woody part.|
|Stigma and Style present.||Stigma and Style absent.|
|Microsporophyll is represented by a stamen, consisting of stamen and filament.||Microsporophyll is represented by a broad, sterile head. No distinction in anther and filament.|
|Ovules are present inside the ovary part of the carpel; these are attached to the placenta.||Ovules lie on the megasporophyll and are not borne on the placenta.|
|Ovules are produced on a stalk or funiculus.||Ovules are sessile.|
|An ovule is covered by one or two thin integuments of narrow miropyle.||An ovule is covered by three layers of integuments of wide miropyle.|
|Usually four microsporangia or pollen sacs.||Varies from two (Pinus) to several hundred in Cycas.|
|The female gametophyte contains seven-celled and eight nucleate embryo sac.||The female gametophyte is parenchymatous and large.
|Archegonia are absent||Distinct archegonia is present.|
|Tube cell and a generative cell is present in male gametophyte, which divides and form two male gametes.||One or two prothalial cell, stalk cell, tube cell and a body cell, which further divides into two male gametes.|
|The embryo contains one or two cotyledons.||Embryo contains one or many cotyledons.|
|Type of fertilization||Double fertilization process is there, where both the male gametes are in active state and one play the role for generative fertilization and other for vegetative fertilization or triple fusion.||There is only one generative type of fertilization and only one gamete is functional.
|Development of seeds||It develops inside the ovary part of the carpel which matures into a fruit.||Seeds develop on the megasporophyll and fruits are never formed.|
|Use||1. Angiosperms are also the source of the world's hardwoods.|
2. Flowering plants are economically important as they serve as a source of pharmaceuticals, timber, ornamental, fiber products, and other commercial uses.
|Gymnosperms are known for providing softwoods such as pine, fir and use to make paper, the lumber, and plywood.|
Definition of Angiosperms
Angio means ‘vessels’ and sperms mean ‘seeds’. There are more than 25,000 species found till the date of the angiosperms. These are called “hardwood” and they normally die during the season of autumn.
Angiosperms are considered to be having more variety of species which include the trees, herbs, and shrubs. These have a proper root system, which helps in gathering water and minerals from the soil. Stems in these types work for the transportation system of the body, and the leaves are considered as the main source for the intake of food.
Angiosperms are bisexual. As well they have their pollen receptive structure. Endosperm is produced as a triploid tissue primarily as it is created during triple fusion. Angiosperms represent 80 percent of all the known green plants.
They are the vascular seeds plants where ovule (egg) is fertilized and develops into a seed in an enclosed ovary. The ovary is enclosed within the flower, this part contains male or female or both kind of reproductive organ. In these types, fruits get derived, after the maturity of the floral organs of the plant.
Definition of Gymnosperms
Gymno means ‘naked’ and sperms mean ‘seeds’. There are around 1000 of species found of this type. The gymnosperms are green all throughout the year and stay alive for a long duration.
They also have roots and stem, which helps in the anchoring and in absorbing water and minerals from the soil and stems helps in transporting the materials, but they do not contain ovary and the stigma which is present on angiosperms.
Gymnosperms are mostly limited to woody trees. They have needle-like leaves which reduce water loss. These are common to the lumber industry, trees of these woods are used much. They are unisexual.
In Gymnosperms seeds are enclosed in cones where male cones produce pollen, while female cones produce eggs. Here the male is called as pollen cone and female is called seed cone. Cones protects the seeds where zygote gets hardens itself.
Example: Cedar, Pine, Redwood, Evergreen. Gymnosperms can be divided into three more categories like Cycads, Ginkgo, and Conifers. These types undergo ‘Alternation of a generation‘, where plants alter among gametophyte and sporophyte. Pollen cones release pollen (male gametophyte) which is the haploid stage because double fertilization and triple fusion are absent in this class. The endosperm is produced before fertilization.
Key Differences Between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms
Following are the substantial key differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms:
- Angiosperms consist flowering ornamentals, fruits, and all vegetables and hence called as flowering plants, while gymnosperms contain all kind of pine, fir, pine, conifers, cedar, juniper, cypress and hence called as non-flowering plants.
- Angiosperms contain sporophylls which get accumulated to produce flowers, angiosperms are generally bisexual and rarely unisexual, whereas gymnosperms also contain sporophylls which get accumulated to form cones.
- Structural differences
- Sepals and petals present in angiosperms, which are not been possessed by gymnosperms.
- Sporophyll bears short thalamus in angiosperms; it (sporophyll) bears elongated central axis gymnosperms.
- Megasporophyll is structured to form a carpel as well, microsporophyll is represented by a stamen, consisting of stamen and filament in angiosperms, whereas gymnosperms have a woody part and microsporophyll is represented by a broad, sterile head. No distinction in anther and filament.
- In angiosperms stigma and style are present and usually, four microsporangia or pollen sacs are present. In gymnosperms stigma and style are absent and microsporangia vary from two (Pinus) to several hundred in Cycas.
- Ovules are present inside the ovary part of the carpel; these are attached to the placenta, these (ovules) are produced on a stalk or funiculus in angiosperms. While in gymnosperms ovules lie on the megasporophyll and are not borne on the placenta and they (ovules) are sessile.
- An ovule is covered by one or two thin integuments of narrow micropyle in angiosperms; whereas in gymnosperms an ovule is covered by three layers of integuments of wide micropyle.
- Angiosperms, the female gametophyte contains seven-celled and eight nucleate embryo sac whereas in gymnosperms the female gametophyte is parenchymatous and large.
- Archegonia are absent and Tube cell and a generative cell is present in male gametophyte, which divides and form two male gametes in angiosperms; Distinct archegonia are present and one or two prothalial cell, stalk cell, tube cell and a body cell, which further divides into two male gametes in gymnosperms.
- In angiosperms, embryo contains one or two cotyledons and the seeds develop inside the ovary part of the carpel which matures into a fruit. In gymnosperms embryo contains one or many cotyledons, even the seeds develop on the megasporophyll and fruits are never formed.
- Double fertilization process is there, where both the male gametes are in active state and one play the role for generative fertilization and other for vegetative fertilization or triple fusion in angiosperms; while in gymnosperms there is only one generative type of fertilization and only one gamete is functional.
- Angiosperms are also the source of the world’s hardwoods. Flowering plants are economically important as they serve as a source of pharmaceuticals, timber, ornamentals, fiber products, and other commercial uses, whereas gymnosperms are known for providing softwoods such as pine, fir and use to make paper, lumber, and plywood.
Here we can conclude that the kingdom Plantae, which is also called metaphyta includes all kinds photosynthetic, multicellular and eukaryotic plants found in the biosphere. In this kingdom, most of them are autotrophs, while some are autotrophs as well as heterotrophs.
Angiosperms and gymnosperms being the groups of the plant kingdoms are important as they occupy more than 80 percent of the whole kingdom. But in terms of vegetations, the angiosperms dominates the earth surface specifically terrestrial habitat than any other group. But it suffices to say that life on earth and success of many organisms depends on the success of plants, either directly or indirectly.