The mixture contains two or more substances mixed, but neither chemically as well as not in inexact quantity while compound includes two or more elements combined chemically and in a fixed ratio. For instance, Seawater, Crude oil, Mineral oils, Alloys (Brass, Bronze), etc., are some of the mixtures, Water (H2O), Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2), Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Baking Soda (NaHCO3), etc. are the name of some compounds.
As per the classical physics theory, anything that occupies space has mass and volume is known as the matter. Even matter can be classified into two classes, mixtures, and the pure substances. Pure substances are made up of elements and compounds.
Elements are the simple substance and further cant be broken into more simpler forms. It contains only one type atom, but compound has two or more different atoms or elements, on the other hand, mixtures contain different substances.
On the way of highlighting the differences between mixtures and compounds in this content, we will be giving a brief description of them.
Content: Mixtures Vs Compounds
|Basis for Comparison||Mixtures||Compounds|
|Meaning ||Mixtures are the impure substances, made up of two or more physically mixed substances. They can be homogeneous or heterogeneous by nature.||Compounds are the pure form, made up of two or more chemically mixed elements. These are generally homogeneous.|
|Composition ||The substances which are found in the mixtures are not in fixed quantity, that means their ratio varies.||But in the case of compounds, the elements are present in fixed quantity, that means their ratio is fixed.|
|Properties||The properties of the mixtures also vary (not fixed) as it depends on the type of substances and the quantity by which these are being mixed.||For the particular type of compound, the properties are fixed and do not vary, as the elements present in the compounds are fixed and are in the fixed ratio.|
|Formula||Mixtures do not have a certain formula.||Compounds have a specific formula, depending on the constituents present.|
|Separation||The substances of the mixtures are easy to separate by different physical methods like filtration, chromatography, evaporation. ||The elements are not easy to separate and if done than it is by chemical methods.|
|Substances||No new substances are formed from the mixtures, due to the unchangeable properties of its constituents. ||There is always formation of the new substances, due to the mixing of the chemical properties of the different constituents.|
|Mixtures do not have fixed melting or boiling point.||The compound once formed, have fixed melting and boiling point.|
|Heat change||There is no heat change, or involvement of energy is observed when mixtures are made.||There is a heat change, and energy is used or released during the formation of the compounds, as it is a chemical reaction.|
|Examples ||Alloys like brass, bismuth, chromium, oceanic water (salt and water), mixtures of gases, etc.||Compounds like Baking soda, Methane, Salt, etc.|
Definition of Mixtures
When we look we found many things around us are mixtures, like air, rocks, the oceans, and even the atmosphere. These have the constituents mixed with physical properties and not with any chemical ones and not even in a fixed ratio. Therefore, we can say that formation of mixtures takes place by blending of two or more substances, but not in a fixed ratio.
In mixtures there is no occurrence of the chemical reaction, the fusion takes place in physically. So mixtures have two or more different types of atoms or molecules, or at least one atom and one molecule. Mixtures do not have fixed melting or boiling point.
Mixtures can be separated by the physical methods such as filtration, decantation, distillation. Mixtures can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Homogeneous Mixtures – These are regarded as true solutions, as the constituents present in this type are uniformly or equally distributed all over. For example sugar solution, mixing alcohol and water, etc.
Heterogeneous Mixtures – When the constituents are not evenly distributed in the mixture, it is known as the heterogeneous mixtures. For example, oil and water when mixed, a mixture of sulfur and iron, gravel, etc.
Apart from the above two, mixtures are further classified on the basis of the type of size of the particles present in that. These are solutions, suspensions, colloids.
Solutions – These contain the particles of the nano size, which are less than 1nm in diameter. The solution cannot be separated by the decantation or the centrifuge method. Dissolved oxygen in the water, air, gelatin are some of the examples.
Colloid – In this solution, the particles are so small, that these are not visible through naked eyes, the particle size varies from 1nm to 1mm. The colloid solution shows Tyndall effect, the colloidal constituents can be separated by the decantation and centrifugation process. Blood, smoke, cream are few examples.
Suspension – These are kind of the heterogeneous in nature, they also show the Tyndall effect. The particles in this are large enough and can be separated by centrifugation or decantation. Mud, granite, dust or pollutants in the air are few examples.
Definition of Compounds
When two or more atoms of the different elements combined chemically to form a bond is called the compound. It is a kind of chemical blend between different elements or constituents. When the formation of the bond takes place, the new compound thus form has different chemical properties from the components by which they are made.
For instance, water (H2O), ethanol (C2H5OH), sodium chloride (NaCl), are some of the common compounds, they are made definite proportions of their constituents and have a chemical identity too. The different types of bonds are molecular, acids, cations, anions and binary bonds. These all have different chemical identities and formula.
Key Differences Between Mixtures and Compounds
Given below are the important points to which differentiate mixture from that of the compound:
- Mixtures are the impure substances, made up of two or more physically mixed substances and not in the fixed ratio. Compounds are the pure form, made up of two or more chemically mixed elements and in a fixed ratio.
- Mixtures can be homogenous or heterogeneous in nature, but compounds are generally homogenous.
- As said earlier the composition of the substances found in the mixtures are not in fixed quantity, that means their ratio varies, but in the case of compounds the elements are present in fixed quantity, that means their ratio is fixed. Due to this the compound can be named and have certain chemical formula like Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Baking soda, Methane, Salt, etc., but this is not same for the mixtures.
- As the ratio of the substances present in a mixture is not fixed and so their properties also vary (not fixed) as it depends on the type of substances and the quantity of the elements which are being mixed, whether it is a chemical or physical property. In compounds, new properties (physical and chemical) are retained after the formation of the new compound, and we know the quantity or ratio of the elements present in the compound.
- Separation of the substances present in mixtures is easy by different physical methods such as filtration, chromatography, evaporation, while in case of compounds the substances are not easy to separate and if done than it is by chemical methods.
- No new substances are formed from the mixtures, due to the unchangeable properties of its constituents, while there is always formation of the new substances, due to the mixing of the chemical properties of the different constituents.
- There is no heat change or involvement of energy is observed when mixtures are made, but the formation of compound results in heat change as energy is used or evolved in reaction. Mixtures do not have meting or boiling point, but compounds have fixed melting and boiling point.
- Examples of mixtures are Alloys like brass, bismuth, chromium, oceanic water (salt and water), mixtures of gases, etc., while Sodium Chloride, Baking soda, Methane, Salt, etc., are the examples of the compounds.
The information mentioned in this article is not applicable in the field of science, but it can be observed in ones day to day life; hence it is necessary to know about all these terms in detail so as to identify and distinguish them.