Elements present to the left of the line of the periodic table are said as metals, though elements present to the far right of the periodic table are said as non-metals. Metalloids or semimetals are present just to the right of metals and possess properties of metals as well as non-metals. Hydrogen (H) is an exception, which is the first element of the periodic table and normal temperature and pressure hydrogen show the properties of nonmetal.
Tin, iron, plutonium, and sodium are some of the examples of metal, chlorine, oxygen, and argon are some of the non-metals, while boron, arsenic, and silicon are the names of some of the metalloids.
All types of matter are composed of the atoms of the various elements. Till now there are more than 100 elements have been found in nature, and it is believed that their number can exceed. Each element acquires certain physical and chemical properties.
Physical properties like colour, hardness, type of existence (solid, liquid or gas) and their shine (luster), or those characteristics which can be observed without any chemical reactions.
The chemical properties shows the inherent nature of the element, how they will react when combined with other elements to form compounds. Burning, rusting, tarnishing are the kinds of chemical properties.
Therefore, it has been observed that the elements share these properties with one or the others and on the ground of which they are been categorized in three classes, viz are metals, non-metals, and metalloids and are fixed in the periodic table. The arrangement of the elements in the periodic table share such information from one to other, left to right, top to bottom.
In this content, we will apparently discuss the point on which metal, non-metals, and metalloids differ. We will also provide a summary of them with examples.
Content: Metals Vs Non-Metals Vs Metalloids
|Basis for Comparison||Metals||Non-Metals||Metalloids|
|Meaning||The metals which exhibit the highest degree of metallic behaviour is known as metals.||Non-metals are such elements which do not possess any metallic behaviour.||Metalloids are such elements, which possess some of the properties like metal, while some like non-metal.|
|Place in the periodic table||Metals are placed on the left side of the periodic table.||Non-metals are placed on the right side of the periodic table.||Metalloids are placed in the middle of the periodic table.|
|Location in blocks||Located in s, p, d, and f blocks.||Non-metals is located in s and p blocks.||Metalloids are located in p block.|
|Appearance||Metals have a shiny appearance.||Non-metals have a dull appearance. ||Metalloids have a shiny and dull appearance.|
|Conductivity||Thermal and electrical conductivity is high in metals.||It is very low in non-metals.||Thermal and electrical conductivity is good though it is less than metals.|
|Electronegativity||Metals have low electronegativity.||Non-Metals have high electronegativity.||Metalloids neither possess a too high or too low value of electronegativity.
|Ductility and malleability||Metals show ductility and malleability.||Non-metals do not show ductility and malleability.||Metalloids also do not show this property.|
|Examples||Lithium, Sodium,Calcium, Magnesium, Barium, Lead, Indium, Bismuth, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Nickel, etc.||Iodine, Bromine, Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Sulfur, Phosphorous, etc.||Arsenic, Tellurium, Antimony, Polonium, Tennessine, etc.|
Definition of Metals
Metals are the most abundantly found among all elements. Metals are being placed on the left-hand side of the periodic table, and further moving up, and to the right, the metallic character decreases. Metals are further classified as basic metals, transition metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, lanthanides (rare earth elements), and actinides.
Properties of Metals
- High luster (shiny).
- Metallic appearance.
- Usually solid at room temperature (except mercury).
- Good conductors of electricity and heat.
- High malleable and ductile.
- May have a high melting point.
- Readily lose electrons.
- Oxidize in air and seawater.
The basic metals exhibit the characteristics of metals. Bismuth, Aluminium, Gallium, Indium, Thallium, Lead, Nihonium are some of the basic metals.
They are characterized by having their subshells d or f partially filled. Due to this reason, these metals show coloured complexes. Scandium, Vanadium, Titanium, Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Copper, Nickel, Rhodium, Palladium, Lanthanum, Tungsten, Silver, Gold, Mercury, Platinum are some of the Transition metals.
The far left side of the periodic table in group IA are the alkali metals. There are highly reactive metals. Lithium, Potassium, Sodium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium are some of the alkali metals. Hydrogen is the exception, as a pure element, it is found free in nature. Therefore hydrogen when in the metallic state is said as alkali metal but it is usually counted as non-metal.
Alkaline Earth Metals
The IIA group of the periodic table are the alkaline earth metal, and it is the second column of elements. These elements are less reactive than the alkali metals through the metals are shiny and hard as well as malleable and ductile. Magnesium, Beryllium, Radium, Barium, Calcium, and Strontium are the names of alkaline earth metals.
The lanthanides and actinides are separate on the periodic table and are said as specific types of transition metals.
Definition of Non-Metals
These elements are located on the right side of the periodic table (exception is hydrogen placed on the top left). They have low melting and boiling points.
Properties of Non-Metals
- Non-metals have a dull appearance.
- Non-metals are usually brittle.
- These are bad conductors of electricity and heat.
- They are usually less dense.
- Non-metals have a low melting point.
- They tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions.
Names of the Non-metals (including halogens and noble gases).
Carbon, oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus, Selenium, and Hydrogen (exception), Selenium, Fluorine, Chlorine, Tennessine, Argon, Neon, Helium, Radon, Krypton, Xenon, Oganesson.
Hydrogen and Helium make up 99 percent of the mass of the universe, even living organisms consist of non-metals.
Definition of Metalloids
Metalloids are also known as semimetals. These elements have the properties of both metals and non-metals. Metalloids play a role as semiconductors which are used in electronic devices and computers. In the periodic table, they are present in a zig-zag line between boron and aluminum and down to polonium and astatine. Metalloids may also be used to make polymers, ceramics, and batteries.
Properties of Metalloids
- Metalloids can be shiny or dull.
- They usually conduct electricity and heat.
- Metalloids are good semiconductors.
- They usually exist in several forms.
- Metalloids are ductile and malleable.
- They gain or lose electrons in chemical reactions.
Names of the some metalloids
Key Differences Between Metals, Non-Metals, and Metalloids
- Metals are the elements which exhibit the highest degree of metallic behavior is known as metals, on the contrary Non-metals are such elements which do not possess any metallic behavior, and Metalloids are those elements, that possess some of the properties like metal, while some like non-metal.
- Metals are placed on the left side of the periodic table, Non-metals are placed on the right side of the periodic table and Metalloids are placed in the middle of the periodic table.
- Metals are located in s, p, d, and f blocks in the periodic table, though non-metals is located in s and p blocks and metalloids are located in p block of the periodic table.
- Metals have a shiny appearance, non-metals have a dull appearance; however, metalloids have a shiny and dull appearance.
- Thermal and electrical conductivity is high in metals, low in non-metals and it is good though is less than metals in metalloids.
- Metals have low electronegativity as compare to non-metals, but metalloids are at an intermediate stage that possesses neither the too high or too low value of electronegativity.
- Metals show ductility and malleability, but non-metals and metalloids do not display this property.
- Names of few metals are Lithium, Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Barium, Lead, Indium, Bismuth, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Nickel, etc. On the other hand Iodine, Bromine, Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Sulfur, Phosphorous, etc., are the some of the non-metals, whereas Arsenic, Tellurium, Antimony, Polonium, Tennessine, etc., are some metalloids.
In this article, we studied the metals, non-metals and metalloids and how their physical, as well as chemical properties, differ from each other. Here we focused on some examples like hydrogen which may behave like metals as well as non-metals. All the elements are being displayed in the periodic table.