Binary fission is seen in algae and in few protozoans where there is the division of the nucleus of the cell in the cyst (protective covering), and further, the cyst breaks, and two new offsprings are released. Budding is another kind of asexual reproduction, where a bulb-like projection occurs from the parent body called the bud, which gets detached and forms a new individual. This is seen in Hydra.
Reproduction is the process, through which living organisms can produce new ones of their type. This is done for the continuity of their species in the upcoming time. As we know, there are two types of reproduction sexual and asexual. In sexual reproduction, there is the involvement of the two gametes (male and female), while in asexual reproduction there is no such process followed.
In asexual reproduction, the production of organisms takes place from their body parts rather than the reproductive organs. Commonly seen in lower plants and animals. The different methods of asexual reproduction are budding fission, fragmentation, regeneration, spore formation, or vegetative propagation.
Above mentioned various processes of asexual reproduction, though share specific common features also like, firstly there is the involvement of only one organism, fast mode of replication, cell division in the asexual reproduction is either mitotic or amitotic, and the new individual which is produced are genetically identical to their parents.
In this article, we will be considering the various points on which the two types of asexual reproduction vary, like binary fission and budding.
Content: Binary Fission Vs Budding
|Basis for Comparison||Binary Fission||Budding|
|Meaning||Binary fission is the splitting of the cells into two halves, and thus give rise to the two daughter cells, it occurs merely by nuclear division followed by the division of the cytoplasm.||Budding is the formation of the buds, which separate and result in one mother and a daughter cell.|
|Observed in||Unicellular (bacteria and archaea).||Multicellular (plants, fungi, parasites and metazoans like smaller animals).|
|Type of process|| |
It is a natural process and a kind of fission, which cannot be induced artificially.
|This process can be induced artificially also, as it a type of vegetative propagation.|
|Parent Organism ||In binary fission there is no differentiation between parent cell and the daughter cell as they are in similar size and the distribution of the cytoplasm is also equal.||In budding we can recognize the parent organism as the size of the parent is more significant than the newly formed offspring or bud. There is an unequal division of the cytoplasm.|
|Type of division||Symmetric division. ||An asymmetric division.|
|Outgrowth/formation of the bud||No outgrowth is formed.||There is an outgrowth or formation of bud during the division.|
|Example||Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, Tapeworm.||Hydra, Yeast, Sycon.|
Definition of Binary Fission
A type of fission, where the mother cell (single parent) equally divides into two daughter cells is called Binary Fission. This is seen in yeast, Amoeba, bacteria.
Process of division
Firstly the young cell prepares itself for cell division by enlarging its cell wall, cell volume, cell membrane, and even DNA duplicates from the circular, single chromosome and attached to the unique site of the cell membrane. Now the duplicated chromosomes move to the opposite poles, and the cell membrane gets enlarged; also other cytoplasmic material gets distributed between the two dividing cells. The septum or equatorial plate helps in dividing the plasma membrane.
The new cell wall is formed in the new daughter cells, this division of the cytoplasm is known as cytokinesis.
The new cells will have equal numbers of cell components as well the same cell volume. Binary fission is the critical process of reproduction in prokaryotes. But on the other side, it is also differentiated into few types, like transverse, oblique, longitudinal, and irregular.
When the cytokinesis is along the transverse axis, it is called transverse fission and is commonly seen in Tapeworm, Polyps, Paramecium. In longitudinal fission, the cytokinesis occurs longitudinally along the axis. It is commonly seen in Euglena. The example of oblique is Ceratium, and that of the irregular binary fission is an amoeba.
Definition of Budding
Budding is the type of vegetative propagation, and the best example of this method is Hydra and Yeast. This is also a type of asexual reproduction, but it differs from binary fission in many ways. It occurs in unicellular as well as in multicellular organisms. Here the parent cell divides itself into two unequal parts.
Process of Budding
In this process, the bud arises from the generative point of the parent organism. In some species, the budding may occur from any part of the parent body, but in some species, it is restricted to a certain specialized area of the parent body. In this the cell develops the small outgrowth or tiny bulb-like structure; further, the nucleus and the cytoplasm divides and are attached to the daughter cell. The but detaches itself when it grows completely.
Key Differences Between Binary Fission and Budding
Upcoming points will manifest the various aspects on which the two methods of asexual reproduction varies:
- Binary fission is the type of fission, where the splitting of the cells in two halves takes place, and thus gives rise to the two daughter cells, it merely occurs by nuclear division followed by the division of the cytoplasm. Budding is another type of asexual reproduction where the formation of the buds or bulb-like projection occurs, which separate and result in one mother and a daughter cell.
- Binary fission is observed in unicellular organisms like Bacteria and Archaea, Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Tapeworm. Although budding is seen in multicellular organisms too like plants, fungi, parasites, and metazoans like smaller animals.
- Binary fission is only a natural process, but budding can be performed artificially also in labs and so has economic importance also in horticulture and agriculture. Budding is the type of vegetative propagation.
- Parent organism is undifferentiated in binary fission, as the cytoplasm is equally divided and the cell size is also similar, but in the case of budding the parent, cell is larger than the offspring and is easily distinguishable. There is an unequal division of the cytoplasm.
- Binary fission is the symmetric division, where the distribution of the cytoplasm is equal, but budding is an asymmetric division, due to unequal division of the cytoplasm.
- No outgrowth is formed in binary fission, though bulb-like projection or outgrowth or formation of bud can be noticed during the division.
Binary Fission and Budding are among the types of asexual reproduction processes observed in the fungi, bacteria, and lower plants and animals. We also came to know the method by which they reproduce, though there are other methods too of asexual reproduction, these two are commonly noticed among various species.