Turner syndrome is the dysgenesis in the female gonads, while Klinefelter syndrome is the male hypogonadism. These can be explained by saying that both the terms are problems related to the sex chromosomes, as in the earlier one there is lacking of one of the sex chromosomes and so-called as monosomy (2n-1), while the latter consist of the extra sex chromosome and so-called as trisomy (2n+1).
There are total 46 or 23 pair chromosomes in a cell of the human body, out of which 44 are said as autosomes, and the remaining two are set of sex chromosomes which can be ‘XX‘ for females and ‘XY‘ for males. The male and female each transfer 44 autosomes and one sex chromosomes. This pairing further decides the sex of zygote.
But due to some mismatching of the chromosomes, results in such cases. There are many other problems faced by the sufferer, as they differ from the normal human being in physical appearance too. Though there are rare cases of occurrence and even there treatment is not easily available. In this article, we will focus on the points which bifurcate the two syndromes.
Content: Turner Vs Klinefelter Syndrome
|Basis for Comparison||Turner Syndrome||Klinefelter Syndrome|
|Meaning||When a girl is born with the different genetic condition than the normal one, it is called as Turner syndrome, in this, there is the loss of one of the sex chromosome (XO instead of XX).||When a boy is born with the different genetic condition than the normal one, where instead of having normal XY sex chromosome, they have XXY chromosomes, it is termed as Klinefelter syndrome.|
|Karyotype||Monosomy of sex chromosome (2n-1), in this only one X chromosome, is present.||Trisomy of sex chromosome (2n+1), in this XXY chromosome, are present in males.|
|Occurs in||1 in 2500 phenotypic female.||1 in 1100 phenotypic
|Features or Physical appearance||1. Females are sterile.|
2. Undeveloped breasts.
3. Webbed neck, Short stature.
4. Uterus, vagina, vulva present, the absence of menstruation.
5. Testes, ovary absent or poorly developed.
6. Cardiovascular problems, hearing impairment.
7. The physical appearance of the female.
|1. Males are sterile.
2. Small testes (less production of testosterone).
3. Undeveloped sex organs like seminal vesicles, penis, vas deferens.
4. Mentally retarded.
5. Feminine characteristics, such as enlarged breasts, feminine pitched voice.
6. Long limbs.
7. Patients are thinner and taller.
8. Physical appearance is the male.
|Treatment||It is commonly treated with estrogen, growth hormones and replacement therapy.||Testosterone therapy and hormone therapy.|
Definition of Turner Syndrome
This is also known as monosomy, XO or 45 (2n-1), here the set of chromosomes are found to be irregular in females. There is partly or completely missing of an X chromosome. These types of females are sterile (infertile), lack menstruation, webbed neck, short stature and undeveloped reproductive organs. They may also suffer from cardiovascular disease and other hormonal problems.
In this condition, there is missing of one the sex chromosomes, and so instead of the total 46 chromosomes, the effected person has 45 only. This syndrome is due to chromosomal impairment; they are not inherited. Turner syndrome got its name after ‘Henry Turner’ who identified it in the year 1938. It occurs 1 in 2500 births in the female.
This happens due to genetic variations and can be treated with growth hormone or estrogen replacement.
Definition of Klinefelter Syndrome
This is also known as trisomy, XXY, or 47 (2n+1), where the set of chromosomes is found irregular in males. These type of males are sterile and has small testicles. This syndrome occurs rarely, that is around 1 in 1100 births. This syndrome is not inherited from one generation to another. In this condition, there is the pairing of extra X chromosome, along with the Y chromosome and result in XXY, rather than the normal XY condition.
Along with the sterility, these males have other different features too, like greater height, breast growth, poor body muscles, less body hair, they are mentally disabled, and have difficulties in reading and speech. These symptoms are sometimes noticed at the time of puberty.
This syndrome got its name after the identifier ‘Harry Klinefelter’ in 1940. Although these are the genetic variations and are irreversible, but can be treated by giving testosterone or hormone therapy.
Key Differences Between Turner and Klinefelter Syndrome
Given below are the substantial points which differentiate both the syndromes:
- Turner syndrome is the deletion of one of the sex chromosome (XO instead of XX) in the newborn, and so the effected person faces many difficulties in their physical appearance, as well as clinically, it occurs in the female. On the other hand, if a boy born with the extra X chromosome (XXY instead of XY), then he is said to be affected by Klinefelter syndrome.
- Karyotype of the Turner syndrome is monosomy of sex chromosome (2n-1), where only one X chromosome is present, while in Klinefelter syndrome there is trisomy of sex chromosome (2n+1), in this XXY chromosome are present in males.
- Turner syndrome and the Klinefelter syndrome are the rare cases where the earlier one occurs in 1 out of 2500 phenotypic female, while the latter one occurs in 1 in 1100 births.
- There are many features of the Turner syndrome where are females are sterile, they have undeveloped breasts, even ovary are absent or poorly developed. Uterus, vagina, vulva present, but menstruation is absent. They even have webbed neck, short stature, cardiovascular problems, hearing impairment and has the physical appearance of female only.
- In the case of Turner syndrome males are sterile, organs like testes, penis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle are small and undeveloped. The person is mentally disabled, have long limbs, thinner as well taller and show feminine characteristics, such as enlarged breasts, feminine pitched voice. Then too they physically appear as the male.
- Turner syndrome is commonly treated with estrogen, growth hormones and replacement therapy while Klinefelter syndrome is treated with testosterone therapy.
Above we consider the difference between the two syndrome, which occurs due to variations in the sex chromosomes. Hence we can say that these syndromes cannot be appropriately treated as few treatments are only available, but not conveniently, though they are not inherited to other generation.