The neutrophils are one that reaches the site of the infection quickly when the immune response triggers, and thus helps in fighting against the foreign particles by ingesting them. Eosinophils are another type of white blood cells, that fight against infection, allergies and diseases. Basophils are always present against allergens and prevent blood clotting in the body, as it contains heparin which is the natural blood thinner.
White blood cells are produced by the body naturally, which are of various types. These cells work against foreign pathogens like bacteria, parasites, virus, fungi or any other microorganisms. Apart from the red blood cells, white blood cells are the vital part of one’s body; moreover little fluctuations in the range of the white blood cells from its normal range, are the warning alarm of weakening of the immune system.
White blood cells are also known as white corpuscle or leukocyte, which is the cellular component of blood and occupies 1% of the total part. These cells lack haemoglobin, but has a nucleus and protects our body against disease and infections and attack of allergens or any foreign materials. The usual range of white blood cells in the human being is between 4500 to 1100 cells per cubic millimetre (mm3).
White blood cells are divided into three categories: monocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes. Lymphocytes constitute the T and B cells; monocytes have macrophages, while granulocytes have neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.
With this, in this article, we will be learning about the type of white blood cells, that are categorized as granulocytes. We will also differentiate them in the comparison chart.
Content: Neutrophils Vs Eosinophils Vs Basophils
|Basis for Comparison||Neutrophils||Eosinophils||Basophils|
|Meaning||Neutrophils are one of the primary types of white blood cells, that evokes the immune response against any foreign particle attack in the body.||Eosinophils are another type of white blood cells, that helps in fighting against disease and allergies.||Basophils are such white blood cells that help to diagnose the specific health problems like autoimmune disease or other blood disorder, etc. in the body.|
|Nucleus shape||Two-lobed nucleus.||Bean-shaped nucleus.||Multi-lobed nucleus.
|Lifespan||The neutrophils lifespan is 5-90 hours.||The eosinophils lifespan is 8-12 hours.||The basophils have a life span of 60-70 hours.|
|Diameter||The neutrophils have a diameter of 8.85 micrometres.||The eosinophils have a diameter of 12-17 micrometres.||The basophils have a diameter of 10-14 micrometres.|
|Colour while staining||Natural pink in colour.||Brick-red in acidic stains.||Dark blue in basic stains.|
|Presence in the blood cells||Neutrophils mark up to 40-75% of the total white blood cells.||Eosinophils mark up to 1-6% of the total white blood cells.||Basophils mark up to 0.5-1% of the total white blood cells.|
|Normal Range or count||Neutrophils - 2500-8000 per mm3.||Up to 0-500 per cubic millimetres (mm3) is considered as the normal range.||Up to 0-300 per cubic millimetres (mm3) is the normal range.|
|Disease||High level leads to neutrophilia and leukocytosis, while low level of neutrophils leads to neutropenia and leukopenia.||The higher level of eosinophils leads to eosinophilia.||If the level of the basophils increases, it may lead to hypothyroidism, myeloproliferative disorders, or autoimmune inflammation.|
|Role||Neutrophils vital role is in engulfing the foreign or toxic particles through phagocytosis.||Eosinophils are the first one in triggering the inflammatory response during allergic disorders.||Basophils prevent the immediate blood clotting, as it contains heparin (anticoagulant).|
Definition of Neutrophils
The type of white blood cells that deals with the infections and repair damaged tissues. The level of the neutrophil in the blood increases when there is any stress, injuries or infection while there (neutrophils) level may decrease with any drug treatments, certain chronic infections or under genetic conditions.
Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and occupy 55-70 per cent of the total white blood cells present in the bloodstream. The normal count of the neutrophils in an adult body is around 2500 – 8000 per millimetres cubed (mm3).
But it is observed that sometimes the level of neutrophils may go higher or lower, and this can occur due to various reasons. The neutrophil level rises in blood level, due to stress, pregnancy, obesity, certain cancers, and medications (epinephrine, beta-2-agonists, and corticosteroids). These conditions may result in hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis and inflammatory bowel disease.
The condition when the neutrophils level gets low, and so it is called neutropenia. The neutrophils level also declines when the spleen gets enlarged, because spleen destroys the neutrophils and other blood cells.
Definition of Eosinophils
Eosinophils are among one of the immune system cells, that contribute to fighting or invading against foreign particles like viruses, bacteria and other infection-causing pathogens. The eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow and get matured in 8 days.
The eosinophils are such type of cells, that consist of a nucleus with two lobes (bilobed), and 200 micro granules. They are found in thymus, spleen, intestines, ovaries, uterus and lymph nodes. The usual range of eosinophils in the blood is 0-500 per cubic millimetres (mm3).
When a person is sick, the eosinophils levels get down or may even not present, that means the range of eosinophils may fall to zero. The condition when the level of the eosinophils gets low from the standard range is called as eosinopenia. The situation may arise due to certain medical issues that result in overproduction of steroids.
Another condition is known as eosinophilia, where the level of eosinophils rises from 500 to 1500 per cubic millimetres (mm3). Eosinophilia occurs because of asthma, eczema, hypereosinophilic myeloid neoplasms, allergies, medicational reaction or any parasitic infections. Eosinophilia may sometimes lead to eosinophilic pneumonia, eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, valley fever.
Definition of Basophils
Basophils are also one of the essential types of white blood cells, that are produced in the bone marrow and are present in tissues of the body. They (basophils) also check the immune system to work properly.
The usual range of basophils in the blood is less than 3%, that is between the 0 – 300 per cubic millimetres (mm3). The low level of basophils indicates the allergic reactions; while, high level of basophil symbolizes the blood disorders or autoimmune conditions. Basophils respond naturally to the invaders (foreign particles) of the immune system.
The basophil release histamine, at the time, reacting to allergens that have attacked the body, and thus cause inflammation at the time of allergic reaction. Basophil also plays a role in preventing blood clotting.
Key Differences Between Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Basophils
Following are critical differences between the neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils:
- Neutrophils are one of the main types of white blood cells, that evokes the immune response against any foreign particle attack in the body. Eosinophils are another type of white blood cells, that helps in fighting against disease and allergies. Basophils are such white blood cells that help diagnose specific health problems like autoimmune disease or other blood disorder, etc. in the body.
- Neutrophils have a two-lobed or bilobed nucleus, while eosinophils have bean-shaped nucleus and basophils have a multi-lobed nucleus.
- The lifespan of neutrophils is 5-90 hours, whereas eosinophils lifespan is 8-12 hours and that of basophils have a life span of 60-70 hours.
- The neutrophils have a diameter of 8.85 micrometres; eosinophils have of 12-17 micrometre, and basophils have a diameter of 10-14 micrometre.
- Neutrophils make up to 40-75% of the total white blood cells, while eosinophils mark their presence up to 1-6% and basophils are up to 0.5-1% of the whole white blood cells.
- Normal Range or count in blood of neutrophils is 2500-8000 per mm3; eosinophils are up to 500 cubic millimetres (mm3), and basophils are up to 0-300 cubic millimetres (mm3).
- High level of neutrophils leads to neutrophilia and leukocytosis, while low level of neutrophils leads to neutropenia and leukopenia, whereas the higher level of eosinophils leads to eosinophilia; If the level of the basophils increases, it may lead to hypothyroidism, myeloproliferative disorders, or autoimmune inflammation.
- All the granulocytes present in white blood cells play their role in fighting against pathogens and in destroying them, where neutrophils vital role is in engulfing the foreign or toxic particles through phagocytosis; Eosinophils are the first one in triggering the inflammatory response during allergic disorders; and Basophils prevents the immediate blood clotting, as it contains heparin (anticoagulant) in the body.
In this article, we came to know about one of the type of white blood cells, categorized as granulocytes. White blood cells are found in the blood of the human body as well as animals and contribute to protecting and making the immune system strong to fight against diseases and other pathogens. Granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow by stem cells, and work for the defence mechanism of the body.