The asexual reproduction is the process where there is no interaction between the organisms of the same species and the organisms alone is capable of producing the offspring. Sexual reproduction involves the interaction of the two organisms (male and female), to produce the zygote or the offspring.
Asexual reproduction is usually seen in lower forms of organisms like algae, protozoans, bacteria, and fungi. While sexual reproduction is noticed in higher plants and animals. Reproduction is the procedure of multiplication of the organisms, to increase the population of their species. This continuity occurs by giving birth to the offspring of its kind, which further develops and eventually will proceed to give rise to a new individual.
The difference between the asexual and sexual reproduction is very meager. But its effect is very significant in terms of characters and offspring. Although Fungi is an exception, which reproduces by both sexually as well as asexually.
Content: Asexual Vs Sexual Reproduction
|Basis for Comparison||Asexual Reproduction||Sexual Reproduction|
|Meaning||The process when living organisms give birth to their offspring, without the contribution of the other organisms of the same category is called asexual reproduction.||The process when living organisms give birth to their offspring, with the input of another organism of the same category and opposite gender is called as sexual reproduction.|
|Types||Binary fission, fragmentation, spore formation, budding.||Syngamy and conjugation.|
|Number of organisms involved||One (uniparental).||Two (biparental) (male and female).|
|Cell division||Mitotic division only.||Mitosis and Meiosis.|
|Involvement of sex cells||Somatic cells of parents.||Germ cells of parents.|
|Occur in||In lower invertebrates, chordates and plants having simple organizations.||In higher plants and all animals.|
|Gametes||No formation or fusion of gametes.||Gametes are always formed, and fusion also occurs.|
|Fertilization||No fertilization.||Fertilization takes place.|
|Time is taken to complete||Multiplication is very rapid and in lesser time.||Multiplication is not so rapid also takes the longer time to complete.|
|Offspring||The number of offspring may vary from two to many.||Some offspring produced are less in number comparatively.|
|The offspring are genetically similar.||The offspring produced are genetically different from their parents.|
Definition of Asexual Reproduction
When the cell makes the exact copy of itself, with the involvement of single organism such reproduction is called as asexual reproduction. Although the main process of asexual reproduction is mitosis. This type of reproduction is commonly seen in single-cell organisms and some plants.
Some Common Types of Asexual Reproduction
1.Binary fission– Binary fission is common in prokaryotes, where a living cell divides into two daughter cells. These two daughter cells are identical to each other, but sometimes variation may occur due to mutations. This process which gives rise to two daughter cell, further develop into individual parent cells and give rise to two more daughter cells and the process goes on.
2.Budding– When the small portion of a plant or animal breaks, and after getting separated from their mother, and then they again start to grow, till both the parent and the offspring become same in size. These offsprings are parents again give rise to new one. This process is followed by some animals and plants which are unable to divide in half as in process binary fission.
Definition of Sexual Reproduction
This process occurs in higher plants and animals, between opposite genders where the cell contained two sets of chromosomes and called as diploid. But the gametes or sex cells are haploid (1x) and have only one set of chromosomes. These haploid cells undergo meiosis, where crossing over occurs of the chromosomes and result in the recombination. This process occurs in multicellular organisms which reproduce sexually.
There are specialized organs present in male and female gametes for sexual reproduction in plant and animals. In this the exchange of gametes between male and female counter part. These haploid gametes (1x) gametes unite to form diploid (2x). This cell (zygote) develops in to embryo and then into an organism.
The two of sexual reproduction are Syngamy and Conjugation. In syngamy, the two haploids gametes permanently fuse to form the zygote; this is called fertilization in humans. But in the case of conjugation, the temporary cytoplasmic bridge is formed, also called as conjugating tube between the two organisms. Through this tube, the genetic material is transferred.
Key Differences Between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Following are the key differences between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction:
- The process when living organisms give birth to their offspring, without the contribution of the other organisms of the same category is called asexual reproduction. But the process when living organisms give birth to their offspring, with the contributions of another organism of the same category and opposite gender is called as sexual reproduction.
- Binary fission, fragmentation, spore formation, budding are the type of asexual reproduction, while syngamy and conjugation are the types of sexual reproduction.
- In the asexual organism, the number of organisms involved is only one (uniparental), whereas in sexual reproduction there is involvement
of two organisms of opposite gender (biparental).
- Mitotic cell division only occurs in asexual reproduction, on the contrary in sexual reproduction mitosis and meiosis type of cell division occur. Even the somatic cell and germ cells are the types of sex cells involved in the asexual and sexual reproduction respectively.
- Asexual reproduction occurs in lower invertebrates, chordates and plants having a simple organization, on the contrary, the sexual reproduction takes place in in higher plants and all animals.
- There is no formation or fusion of gametes in asexual reproduction, but is sexual reproduction there is always formation of gamete and fusion also occurs.
- Fertilization takes place in sexual reproduction, but it does not occur in in asexual reproduction.
- Multiplication of cells occurs very rapidly and in lesser time as compared to sexual reproduction whereas the multiplication of cell is not rapid and takes longer time.
- The number of offspring may vary from two to many and are genetically similar in asexual reproduction whereas the number of offspring produced are less in number comparatively which are genetically different from their parents.
Such organism which gives rise to the offspring by their own and does not need the contribution of other organisms of its kind is called asexual reproduction, on the contrary, sexual reproduction requires the fusion of two gametes of opposite genders to give rise to the offspring. Both the process have their importance as asexual reproduction is suited to the organisms which live in one place and are unable to mate.
This process does not allow any variation in their population, though it is opposite in the case of sexual reproduction, which accepts variations in their population. And due to which sexual reproduction is considered as the most fundamental aspect of evolution.